From a decade, environmental pollution becomes a serious matter of concern. As population increases, need of human being is also getting increased. So, it is not easy to meet the demand of land, water, food and fresh air. Today the availability of potable and portable water for everyone is now a world issue. Water scarcity is mainly caused by pollution, global warming and improper and non-treatable discharge of water by industry, which directly affects human, animal and plant health.
Many researches have been done to find out the effective method which is cost effective, easy to process and environment friendly. And of those research, microorganisms have been found to be the most effective in a very efficient way to reduce pollution. They have the ability to remove heavy metals and other organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater by means of microorganisms such as algae, bacteria, Protozoa, metazoa etc. where algae played an essential role in wastewater treatment, as it has the potential to use wastewater content as feed. They also help in the removal of heavy metals.
Algae are easy to grow, cheap to process and can be used for various objective such as, reduction of BOD, nitrate and/or phosphate removal, coliform inhibition, removal of heavy metals as well as for Bio-fuel production. Various algal species have potential of high biomass production as well as for removal of wastewater pollutant (N, P and K) are: O. multisporus, Nitzschia cf. pusilla, C. mexicana, S. obliqus, C. vulgaris, and M. reisseri.
Algae is very good source of biofuels viz., vegetable oils, Bio-diesel, Bio-oil, Biohydrogen, Biosyngas, Bioethanol, etc. And there are many other advantages of Algal biomass as Biofertilizers, flue gas, wastewater treatment, and the production of high-value chemicals. But initiative is in initial stage needs to be accelerated, so as to achieve expected prognosis.
Hope, this initiative will be useful to meet the shortage of non-renewable energy in the coming future.